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Thursday, November 23, 2006

Pushto literature

Pushto literature:
From Wikipedia
EARLY PUSHTO POETRY: ‘Pushto’ is not only the name of a language, but it comprises all the traditions, norms and values of the Pukhtoons. So thats the reason when any person do some Thing against then Pashtoon Culture ,other People says OH man Don’t do like Panjabi……….! As for as Pushto language is concerned, its history comprises thousands of years, but we can find the proper written Pushto poetry in 139 HIJRI. But it does not mean that before this there was no poetry. Poetry existed, but not in a proper written form. Poets usually did poetry orally and then they and their followers and fans memorized the work. For a generation or two their work used to be remained in minds of people and afterwards it would slowly raze of the people’s minds. Its main reasons, first, is that many of the Pukhtoons at that time were nomads, second, virtually all the Pukhtoon territory was under war for many years as even Alexander was to grapple here for three years. Due to these and many other reasons Pushto language was used only for the purpose of communication and no such literary work existed at that time. But oral Pushto poetry was there even before 139 HIJRI.

Beginning of written poetry: The formal writing of Pushto poetry started from the poem written by Hakim Amir Crore of Ghore, Afghanistan in 139 HIJRI. This poem was included and hence saved in one of the first books of Pushto, PATA KHAZANA. Amir Crore belonged to the Soori tribe and he was the son of Amir Polad. Soori tribe was the royal tribe of Ghore, Afghanistan. His poem was a pure Pushto poem and mature as well. That’s why we can say at that time Pushto poetry had passed through an evolutionary phase. Abu Muhammad Hashim Sarwani was another poet of that period. He was born at Hilmand in 223 HIJRI. He was the student of Ullema of Basat. It is also said that he was the student of popular Arabic writer, Ibn-e-Khalad. Hashim Sarwani also translated some Arabic poems in Pushto as well. Sarwani’s work also came under light through the book, Pata Khazana. He also wrote a book, “SaloVagma”, meaning ‘deserted breeze’ on the eloquence of Arabic verses. After Abu Muhammad Hashim Sarwani, Sheikh Razi is another poet whose work is saved in the book, Pata Khazana. He belonged to the Lodhi tribe of Pukhtoons. Similarly we have many poets in the first phase of Pushto poetry. For instance; Amir Nasir Lodhi, Beat Neeka, Ismail ster bani (son of Beat Neeka), Kharshaboon (cousin of Ismail ster bani), Sheikh Asad Soori and so on.

PUSHTO PROSE Intellectual, scholars and critics divide Pushto literature into two parts, i.e. poetry and prose. The matter of fact is that Pushto literature mostly consists of poetic expressions. Historical collection indicates that primeval Pushto literature was basically in poetic form. Poetic literature like ‘Amir Crore Nazam’ and ‘Sheikh Mati Munajat’ were all in poetic form. Prose found its place in Pushto literature very late. The reason is that poetry is a far common and effective genre for translating and expressing one’s feeling into it and conveying the same to others. Poetry easily touches the heart as compare to prose. Every one likes poetry and can be easily allured by its magnetism. However prose vis-à-vis poetry appeals to a very selective mind and heart. Now the question arises as to when prose writing came into vogue in Pushto literature. There are various profound claims and arguments regarding the origin of prose in Pushto literature like it having been originated as back as 223 HIJRI in the form of translation of Arabic verses in book titled ‘SaloVagma’ (Deserted Breeze). Since the book is not vogue and the idea is based on mere assumption so it cannot be taken as authentic. Similarly, another book ‘Tazkiratul Aulia’ written by Suleman Makoo in 612 HIJRI is said to be the first recognized book in Pushto. The book contains description s of major Aulia like Shiekh Malkair (R.A), Shiekh Ismial (R.A) and Sheikh Bakhtiar (R.A). The complete book is not in existence but a part of it is available. However, the oldest complete prose book in Pushto that is in existence till today is ‘Khairul Bayan’. After that we come across Akhund Darvez’s book title ‘Makhzanul Islam’ and some other books written in the 9th and 10th centuries by Babu Jan, Mlamast Zamand, Allah Yar, and Akhun Qasim. But all these books were in prose-verse as they contained difficult words and rhetorical expressions and poetic rhythms as well. After that comes the era of great Pushto poet, Khushaal Khan Khatak. He and his family have a remarkable contribution to Pushto prose writing. His sons, one of her daughters, Haleema Khatak and his (Khushaal Khan Khatak’s) grand children contributed to Pushto prose in a unique way. It was this period when prose was written in clear, short and easy to follow and comprehensible form. Then comes the period of some of the greatest prose writers Saleh Mohammad, Ghulam Mohyuddin Afghan, Zamarley, Maulvi Mir Ahmed Shah, and Abdul Rauf Qaney further contributed to the cause of Pushto prose in Afghanistan. To conclude, Pushto expressions far more exceeds prose collections in Pushto literature as prose needs special attention on the part of intellectuals and critics and as this very form of expression is less developed in prose vis-à-vis poetry.

Pushto Academy and Pushto literature: The Pushto Academy was established in 1955 in the capital city of NWFP. The founder of the academy was Maulana Abdul Qadir who since his student-life was very concerned about the future of Pushto language. He was a scholar in Arabic, Persian, English, Urdu and Pushto. Before the establishment of the academy, there was no such plate form for the writers and poets of Pushto language from where their work could reach to the masses. So the establishment of the Pushto academy helped gave a plate form to the writers and intellectuals on one hand and on the other hand the academy helped the Pushto language adopt a certain discipline. Through the academy quarterly magazine, ‘PUSHTO’ it published and hence appreciated both the Pushto poem as well as prose.

Positive impact of the Pushto Academy on Pushto literature: The Pushto academy has played an important role in the development of Pushto language as the total number of books published after the establishment of the Pushto Academy are many-fold more than the number of books published in the past 12oo years of literary history of Pushto language. To conclude, we can say Pushto literature, especially, Pushto poetry is on its peak as the Pushto poets do not afraid to write Ghazal, couplet or to do any kind of poetry, containing four, six or eight stanzas.

Pushto newspapers:

History of Pushto newspapers: Syed Rahat Zakheili was not only a novelist and fiction writer of Pushto language, but Pushto first journalist who through journalism served the Pushto literature. To develop the Pushto literature, he started a weekly newspaper. “AFGHAN” and appreciated the Pushto poets and writers through the weekly. Unlike other language newspapers, Pushto journalism started to develop the Pushto literature, so we can easily say that there was a strong link between Pushto literature and Pushto journalism and the journalism started as to help develop the Pushto literature. The editor of the weekly, AFGHAN was Syed Abdullah Shah Kaka Khiel. Before AFGHAN Pushto journalism existed, but not in a regular and disciplined way. For instance, Al Jihad, one page newspaper owned by Abdul Ghaffar Peshawari used to be published under the editorship of Ghazi Abdul Ghafoor of Swat. Haji Sab Torakzai established a Litho press (printing press) in Tribal areas in 1915 during the ‘Jihad’ against Britain. Through this press special kind of pamphlets against the Britain used to publish and distributed among the people of the tribal areas. Similarly, Al Mujahid was another Pushto newspaper which started publishing in 1923 under the editorship of Maulvi Muhammad Bashir. This newspaper also used to publish in the tribal areas and printed material against the Britain. ‘Zalmi Pukhtoon’ was another daily newspaper which used to publish in 1933 and ‘Hamdard Afghan’ would publish in 1929 under the editor ship of Khan Mir Hilali. During these days, Mohammad Nawaz Khatak started ‘WATAN’ that was a weekly newspaper.

Current Pushto newspapers (dailies): Two main dailies of Pushto language are ‘Wahdat’ and ‘Khabroona’. ‘Wahdat’ started its publication in 80s during the Afghan war for the purpose to create a link between Pukhtoons living on the Pak-Afghan border.

Editorial policy of Wahdat: The editorial policy of the newspaper is free in away that the paper is not under any kind of pressure from the government. Most of the material publish in the editorial is Islamic.

Content of Wahdat: The newspaper mostly contains Islamic material. One page is a literature page comprising, editions related to religion (Islam). No such place has been given to sports or show biz news. Wahdat has no such magazine etc as supplement.

Aid policy of Wahdat: The newspaper gives place to both government and non-government advertisement.

Readership of Wahdat:

Readership of the newspaper is in thousand. Wahdat is mostly read in Peshawar, Mardan, Swat, Karachi and Khandahar (Afghanistan).

Khabroona is another daily newspaper of Pushto language that kick-started in 2001-o2. Khabroona is a relatively new newspaper, but it is also read in Peshawar, Mardan, Swat, suburbs of Peshawar and Kabul (Afghanistan). Editorial policy of the newspaper is quite free and liberal as well vis-à-vis Wahdat. The newspaper is not under any pressure form the government. Content of the newspaper is quite different from Wahdat as it gives enough space to sports and show biz news. As for aid policy is concerned, it publishes the government as well as the private sector aids. Head offices of both Wahdat and Khabroona are in Peshawar. Besides these two main newspapers, English daily, Frontier Post and other Urdu dailies like Aaj (Peshawar) and Maidan (Peshawar) once used to publish a daily supplement of Pushto news.

Pushto magazines Brief history of Pushto magazines: The regular publication of magazines in Pushto language started when the owner of the weekly Afghan, Rahat Zakheili, started the magazine, ‘Stari Mashi’ in 1931. During those days another magazine, ‘Pukhtoon’ started under the editorship of Abdul Khalique. And then some other people found the environment conducive for magazines reading and started the magazines like ‘Selab’ and ‘Angar’ on regular bases. During the world war-II, a magazine, ‘Nan Paroon’ used to be published from Delhi under the editorship of Maulana Abdul Qadir and barrister Nasrullah Khan. Khyber Magazine, a magazine used to publish from Government Islamia College, Peshawar in 50s played a great role to project the views and problems of students on one hand and to promote Pushto literature on the other hand. Some other magazines which have their own fundamental and historical place in Pushto journalism are Qand, Qandeel and Tamas. These magazines are no more publishing.

Current Pushto magazines: It will not be an exaggeration to say Pushto magazine as compared to dailies played a great role in developing the Pushto journalism. They have there own history, more disciplined, publish on regular bases and publish standard material as well. Some of the current Pushto magazines are ‘Jaras’, ‘Chagha’ and ‘Palwasha’. Jaras had been publishing for 10 years from Karachi under the editorship of Tahir Afridi, but now it is published under the editorship of Sher Rehman Buneri.

Radio Broadcasting:

Brief history of radio Pakistan Peshawar: Radio Pakistan, Peshawar started its programmes in a small single room in 1935. The first word broadcasted from radio Pakistan Peshawar was Kalma-e-Tauheed. Radio had a great importance as during these days there were no newspapers and TV and people in ruler as well as urban areas listened to radio not only for NEWS, but for entertainment purpose as well.

Radio and Pukhtoons: Radio has an important role in the lives of the people of NWFP in the past as well as now. Due to low literacy rate very few people are able to read newspaper, therefore, every one has a radio set in his hand whether he is old or young. Even the women in the rural areas of NWFP informed and entertain themselves by radio.

Worldwide Pushto radio station: Pushto is not only spoken in NWFP, but in addition it the language of 40 per cent people of Afghanistan. It is spoken in Karachi and in some parts of India as well. Millions of Pukhtoons live oversees. So quench the thirst of Pushto speaking people the following are the Pushto radio station world wide.

1. Vice of America 2. China Radio International 3. Radio Tehran 4. Radio Shangai 5. Radio Moscow

6. Vice of Germany 7. Radio Kabul 8. All India Radio 9. Radio Pakistan, Peshawar 10. Radio Pakistan, Quetta All these radio stations broadcast different kinds of programmes like ‘Khabarnama’ (news), dramas, musical programmes, programmes for women and other agricultural related programmes. Similarly most of the programmes comprise literary short-dramas, discussions and Mushairas.

New trends in broadcasting: Most areas of NWFP comprises rural areas where the access of television or newspapers are very difficult, therefore, the radio is the only source which can easily be reached to the far flung areas of NWFP. Regarding this, Radio Pakistan, Peshawar his its own impact on the people of NWFP, but in addition to it, new FM stations like FM Boraq and FM 101 are going very well, especially in the rural areas. The private radio stations usually discuss the problems of youth as a result of which the youth listened to it and owing to this these private radio stations get more aids as compared to the radio station(s) supervised by government.

Role of Radio in the development of NWFP: Name of Radio Pakistan, Peshawar will be written in golden words in the history of radio broadcasting as it played a great role in the development of NWFP. It, not only broadcasted the entertainment programmes, but also broadcasted the programmes related to the development and welfare of the province. For instance, it broadcasts programmes for women development, for health, education, for children, agriculture and so on. A part from Radio Pakistan, Peshawar, some other private radio stations have now taken this challenge and going well as they are quite popular in young people of the province. These stations are comparatively liberal and usually discuss the problems of the youth. The private radio stations usually discuss the problems of the youth. For instance, they discuss the problems of the youth, relating to their education. These private radio stations also discuss the other social issues, pertaining to the youth. For example, marriage problems, etc.

Illegal radio stations in Waziristan: During the current operation by Pakistani Army in the Fata, it has also been unveiled that there are some illegal radio stations, operating in the Pakistani side of the Pak-Afghan border. These radio stations are being operated by some clerics of the area, broadcasting their narrow version of religion, alleging each other sects and issue Fatwas (decree) against each others sects. The government has warned them of stern actions, but no such actions are seen by anyone and they (clerics) are enjoying a field day.

FM radio station in the department of mass communication, Peshawar University: To equip the students with practical training of radio broadcasting, the department with the permission of the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has provided the facility of a radio station to the students of mass communication, University of Peshawar. The PEMRA has also issued licenses to the department of mass communication, University of Punjab and the department of mass communication, university of Karachi.


Brief history:

Pakistan Television, Peshawar centre:

Pilot TV Centre A pilot TV Centre was formally inaugurated on December 5, 1974 at 2-Fort Road, Peshawar. It was Black and White Production/Transmitting Centre consisting of Recording Studio and a Booth for News/Announcement. On February 18, 1982 Main Color TV Centre was inaugurated at 58 Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azain with Two Production Studios, one Announcement/News Studio, an Out door Broadcast Van and 07 Nos. of portable outdoor recording units for News/Current Affairs and Programmes.

Pakistan Television, Quetta Centre: PTV Quetta was established during 1974 in the abandoned Masonic Lodge, Quetta Cantt and was formally inaugurated on 26th November, 1974(26th November, on the 10th opening anniversary of PTV in Pakistan as the first PTV Centre was established in Lahore on November 26, 1964 and later on too, most of the centers were established on 26 November).

Programmes of PTV, Peshawar: Pakistan television, Peshawar Center’s timings starts from 4pm to 6pm. The programmes comprise entertainment, News and current affairs. All the programmes telecast by Peshawar centre have a certain percentage of Hindku language programmes as well. Regarding entertainment, PTV, Peshawar, shows dramas, musical programmes, stage shows and programmes for children. The Pushto dramas of PTV are very popular in NWFP, especially in house wives. ‘Abaseen’, a stage show, used to telecast from PTV, Peshawar centre, was similar to Tariq Aziz show which still telecasts from PTV, Lahore centre. ‘Abaseen’ was also very popular among the people. Similarly PTV Peshawar centre shows a lot of other musical programmes which are very popular in youth. PTV, Peshawar centre telecast news in its two hours period. It telecasts Pushto, Urdu and Hindku news at 5pm, 4pm and 5:10 pm respectively. The policy for the news is the same as that of Pakistan television (PTV) i.e. pro-government. There is no such wide range of programmes that consist of topics pertaining to current affairs, but the situation is not deteriorating as the current affairs programmes have started to go on the right track. Talk shows like Jirga are trying to cover a wide array of issues from politics and social issues to religion.

PTV National: After PTV, PTV World and other channels started by Pakistan television, PTV National is another addition to the list of channels started by Pakistan television. It’s a national channel as it transmits the programmes in all languages spoken in Pakistan. So there is a specific time for Pushto programmes.

AVT Khyber: AVT Khyber started its transmission in 2004 from Asia set 3. Earlier the period of time for programmes was 12 hours, but on completion of one year it extended the time period to 24 hours. The actual time period of the programmes is 8 hours i.e. from 4 pm to 12 midnight. AVT Khyber is a complete Pushto channel. The channel shows every kind of programme. Like PTV, Peshawar centre, the programmes of AVT Khyber also consist of entertainment, news and current affairs. The policy for its news is the same as that of other private channels in the country.

Viewer ship of Pushto channels: Except some remote areas of NWFP, PTV, Peshawar has viewers from almost the whole NWFP. PTV National viewers are comparatively more as its transmissions are not confined to NWFP, but are watched in whole of the country and in other countries as well. AVT Khyber is watched in Pakistan and 66 other countries around the world. In Pakistan it is watched in NWFP, Balochistan and Karachi whereas abroad it is watched in Afghanistan, Middle East and in some European countries.

Pushto Films: History of Pushto film: Ist Pushto film was made in 1939. Its name was ‘Laila Majnoon’. The film was released in 1942 and the people not only watched it in Peshawar, but in Quetta and Kolcata (Calcutta, India) as well. The director of the film was Mir Hamza Shinwari, while the composer of the film was Abdul Kareem. The heroine of Laila Majnoon was Habib Jan and the hero was Rafiqe Ghaznawi. Pushto second film was made after quite a long time i.e. in 1960. Its story was a translation of an Urdu film, ‘Nai Kiran’ (new ray). The dialogues of the film were written by Mir Hamza Shinwari. It was displayed at Novelty cinema, Peshawar. Pushto’s 3rd film, ‘Tiga’ was made by Mir Hamza Shinwari in 1963. The hero of the film was Umer Daraz, while Ludeel was the cameraman of the film. Then in 1968 a film, ‘Yakka Yousaf Khan’ was released. The heroine of the film was Ghazali while the hero was Rab Nawaz. This film was inaugurated by Urdu film star, Rangila.

Pushto hits: 1. ‘Yousaf Khan Sher Bano’ was made in 1969 and released in 1970. It was written by Ali Hyder Joshi and directed by Aziz Shamim. 2. ‘Sandar Gharai’ (Singer) was released in 1970. Badar Munir was the hero and Yasmin Khan was the heroine of the movie, whereas Niamat Sarahadi was the villain. 3. ‘Kala Khazan Kala Bahar’ (meaning some times autumn some times spring) was directed by Jamil Ahmad and produced by Syed Amir Sarhadi in 1970. The hero of the film was Aman.

4. ‘Aalaqa Ghair’ (means land of no law) was made (produced) by Habibullah in 1971. Dialogues and poetry was made by Amir Hamza Shinwari. Similarly ‘Darrae Khyber’, ‘Adam Khan Durkhanai’ (produced by Shakil Ayub and directed by Aziz Tabassum), ‘Musa Khan Gul Makai’ (hero was Asif khan and heroine was Yasmin Khan), ‘Bahadur Khan’ (hero was Humayun Qureshi), ‘Ajab Khan Afridi’, ‘Zama Badan’, ‘Maghrur’, ‘Oarbal’, ‘Topak Zama Qanoon’ (produced by Aziz Tabassum), ‘Dahqan’(produced by Badar Munir), ‘Baghi’, ‘Arman’, ‘Miranae Roar’ (step brother), ‘Tarbooz’, ‘Iqrar’, ‘Angar’, ‘Zakhmoona, ‘Navae au Nakriza’(Bridal and Henna), ‘Ujrati Qatil’, ‘Da Aoochea Khan’, ‘Prdang’, ‘Toofani Shappa’, ‘Bangri au Hathqardae’, ‘Ab-e-Hyat’, ‘Khulea Nave’, ‘Kufar au Islam’, ‘Da Karye Gorilla’ and many more are the Pushto hits form 1970-71 to 1985.

Role of film in the development of NWFP: From 1960 to 80s Pushto film enjoyed its great times. Its standard was on no grounds less than that of Urdu films till mid 70s and even 80s. If there were waheed Murad, Nadim and Mohammad Ali in Lollywood (Urdu films), so Badar Munir, Asif Khan and many others were the chocolate heroes of

Pushto film industry. During these days cinema was the most effective
way to communicate with the people as the standard of the movies were very good. Till mid 80s films were made on almost every subject and the people really loved to watch Pushto movies in cinema. So Pushto films played a great role in development of NWFP as though cinema used to situate only in the urban areas of NWFP, but people from far flung areas came to cities like Peshawar, Mardan, and Mingora etc to watch films. Now though the standard of the Pushto film has fallen very much, but the youths, especially the rural people still love to go to cinema.

Pushto films in the 90s: Till 1990 there were some great names in the Pushto film industry. For instance, Mir Hamza Shinwari who was a producer, director and a great name in the Pushto poetry. Murad Shinwari is the one whose name comes in the list of the producers and directors who really served the Pushto industry in its real sense. Amir Ghulam Sadiq is the only name in the Pushto film industry, who did poetry for Pushto films for almost more than 30 years. But after 1990 owing to the absence of institutionalization in the Pushto film industry, there were no such dedicated people, which in intern created environment conducive to vulgarity and obscenity and the standard of the Pushto films fell.

Pushto film and the MMA government: Pushto films seem to have lost their fans due to restrictions by the MMA government on their publicity through banners and posters of the film stars. The laborers who come to the provincial capital, Peshawar for manual jobs used to watch Pushto films in cinemas, but due to the bane the audience of the Pushto film has reduced tremendously because it usually comprises the laborer class who cannot even read the names of film stars. Pushto films which had a limited circuit of three cities--- Peshawar Karachi, and Quetta --- was already passing through a difficult phase and anti-obscenity drive of the MMA proved to be the last nail in the coffin.

Future of Pushto film: Future of the Pushto film industry seems to be bright as there are still some people who want to do something for the betterment of the industry. For instance, Ajab Gul, who is a renowned actor and director in both the Urdu and the Pushto film industry. In 1999 he made a film, ‘Srre Sttergae’(red eyes) and through this film he proved that still there is a great potential in Pushto films as the story for the first time after many years was quite different and the cast, especially the heroine(s) were new and seemed that after a great hard work the film was completed. A few months back, another Pushto film, ‘Qalam au Kalashnikov’, written by Faiz Mohammad released. The standard was quite good and people liked the movie.

References: A: Interviews: 1. Sher Rehman Buneri, the editor of the monthly ‘Jaras’ 2. Sabir Shah Sabir, writing a book on the Pushto films.

B: Books:

1. Khushhal Khan Khatak, by Pareshan Khatak 2. Pashtoon Pushto by Abdul Ali Ghor Ghashti

C: Daily Dawn.

D: Official website of PTV.

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